SQL Server 2019, Java & External Libraries - I

A couple of months ago I wrote a series of posts about one of the new features in SQL Server 2019; the ability to call out to Java code from inside SQL Server.

To see the posts, go to SQL Server 2019 Extensibility Framework & Java.

In the posts, we discussed how the Java extension differs from R and Python in that R and Python are an integrated part of the SQL Server install (when enabling in-database analytics), but Java is not. In other words, the use of the Java extension requires Java to be installed beforehand, and this then has implications on permissions. We also discussed how Java is a compiled language, and we execute against a method in a class, whereas with R and Python we send a script to the external engine. The consequence of this is that when we execute Java code, we need to indicate where the compiled code resides, and those locations need specific permissions.

All this creates a level of complexity, and it would potentially be easier if we load the Java code from a well-known place, where we do not need to worry about permissions and so forth.

This post is the first of a couple where we see how new functionality in SQL Server 2019 CTP 2.3 can help.

Code & Background

Let us start with looking at the code we use today, and also remind ourselves of some of the complexities when calling Java from SQL server.

So, the code:

public class Calculator {
    public static short numberOfOutputCols;
    public static int x;
    public static int y;

    static public int[] outputDataCol1;
    static public boolean[][] outputNullMap;

    public static void adder() {
        numberOfOutputCols = 1;
        outputDataCol1 = new int[1];
        outputDataCol1[0] = x + y;
        outputNullMap = new boolean[1][1];


Code Snippet 1: Java Calculator

As we see in *Code Snippet 1`, the code is very simple, and we have seen variants of it in my other Java posts. If you wonder about some of the variables in the code, the previous posts discuss them in detail.

To use the code from SQL Server, we compile the source file Calculator.java: $ javac Calculator.java, into a .class file: Calculator.class. After compilation, we can now place the Calculator.class in any of the locations a pre-defined CLASSPATH environment variable points to. To call the adder method from inside SQL Server we execute like so:

EXECUTE sp_execute_external_script
    @language = N'Java',
    @script = N'Calulator.adder',
    @params = N'@x int, @y int',
    @x = 21,
    @y = 21;

Code Snippet 2: Execute from SQL Server

By the fact that the .class file is in a CLASSPATH location, the code in Code Snippet 2 succeeds, IF the right permissions exist on the location.

NOTE: The required permission is READ for the ALL APPLICATION PACKAGES group.

Having the code in a CLASSPATH location is one way to load and execute the code. Another way is to have the code in an arbitrary location and explicitly set a parameter in the SQL call to point to that location:

EXECUTE sp_execute_external_script
    @language = N'Java',
    @script = N'Calculator.adder',
    @params = N'@x int, @y int, @CLASSPATH nvarchar(512)',
    @x = 21,
    @y = 21,
    @CLASSPATH = N'W:\javacodepath';

Code Snippet 3: Using @CLASSPATH Parameter

In Code Snippet 3 we see how we set a parameter CLASSPATH to point to where the code is. The permission requirements for this scenario are the same as for when we have a defined CLASSPATH: the location need READ permission for the ALL APPLICATION PACKAGES group.

NOTE: You may wonder where the CLASSPATH parameter in Code Snippet 3 comes from, as it is not part of the signature of sp_execute_external_script? This parameter is a well-known parameter for the SQL Server Java language extension, and if this parameter exists the extension sets the --classpath option in the java command.

In the code snippets above we execute against .class files. In the “real world” however you are unlikely to do that, but instead, you use .jar files. So let us see how we do that from SQL Server. First, we compile the .java source, followed by creating the .jar:

$ javac .\Calculator.java
$ jar -cf MyCalcJar.jar .\Calculator.class

Code Snippet 4: Create a jar File

After we have created the MyCalcJar.jar as in Code Snippet 4, we copy the .jar to either the CLASSPATH location or an arbitrary location. To execute we call it like so:

EXECUTE sp_execute_external_script
@language = N'Java',
@script = N'Calculator.adder',
@params = N'@x int, @y int, @CLASSPATH nvarchar(max)',
@x = 21,
@y = 21,
@CLASSPATH = N'W:\javacodepath\MyCalcJar.jar'

Code Snippet 5: Execute Against a jar File

We see in Code Snippet 5 how we when we execute against a .jar need to:

  • Set the path to the .jar, using the using the CLASSPATH parameter. This is required even if the .jar is in the actual CLASSPATH.
  • Include the name of the .jar file.

We also need to ensure that the permissions mentioned above exist where ever the .jar is.

So the examples above re-enforce what we mentioned in the beginning, Java incurs some complexity which we do not have when executing R/Python code:

  • Where to load the code from.
  • Permissions on said location.

Apart from pointing out the complexities at the beginning of this post I also mentioned that new functionality in SQL Server 2019 CTP 2.3 helps to solve this. That functionality is the ability to create external libraries.

External Libraries

External libraries in SQL Server enables the ability to load artefacts needed for any new language runtimes and OS platforms supported by SQL Server from the database. For example, if you need an R package that is not part of the default install of the engine you can upload to the database the particular R package as an external library and use it from the database in question. An external library is similar to a CLR assembly in that the actual library exists in the database as a byte-stream and SQL Server loads it from the database.

You create an external library in a similar to how you create a CLR assembly; you use a DDL statement CREATE EXTERNAL LIBRARY:

[ AUTHORIZATION owner_name ]  
FROM <file_spec> [ ,...2 ]  
WITH ( LANGUAGE = <language> )  
[ ; ]  

Code Snippet 6: Signature CREATE EXTERNAL LIBRARY

In Code Snippet 6 we see the signature for CREATE EXTERNAL LIBRARY. We see only the main parts:

  • library_name - the name we want the library to have. When we create an external library for Java code we can assign any name we want. However, when we create an external library for R, the name must be the same as what we refer to the package when we load it in the external script.
  • owner_name - optional, and it specifies the name of the user or role that owns the external library.
  • file_spec - this is the content of the package/code. For Java it has to be a .jar file, or a .zip file with relevant .class files in it. The file_spec can be either a path to the file, or a byte array. Part of the file_spec is also the platform on which SQL Server is running. For now, only Windows is supported.
  • language - the language of the package/code.

NOTE: I mentioned above that we see the main parts of CREATE EXTERNAL LIBRARY, and we have not drilled down in detail. If you are interested in the details look here.

To see this in practice, we need first to create a database: CREATE DATABASE JavaTest, (we can obviously use an existing db as well). Then, based on the code in Code Snippet 4 and Code Snippet 5, the call to create an external library for our calculator looks like so:

USE JavaTest;

FROM (CONTENT = 'W:\javacodepath\MyCalcJar.jar')

Code Snippet 7: Create External Library

What we see in Code Snippet 7 is how we create an external library named myCalc, where the external library is based on a .jar file at W:\javacodepath\MyCalcJar.jar. The last thing we do is to indicate that the language is Java. As the only platform supported right now is Windows, we do not bother with the PLATFORM parameter.

To verify this works after we execute the code in Code Snippet 7 we use exactly the same code as in Code Snippet 2:

USE JavaTest;

EXECUTE sp_execute_external_script
@language = N'Java',
@script = N'Calculator.adder',
@params = N'@x int, @y int',
@x = 21,
@y = 21;

Code Snippet 8: Execute Java Code Loaded from Database

In Code Snippet 8 we see how we no longer define the .jar file as a parameter, (what we had to do in Code Snippet 5), but when we execute all works OK.

The question is now where the .jar,(or .zip), loads from. The answer to that is, (like with SQLCLR), that it loads from system tables in the database. When we create an SQLCLR assembly in a database, SQL Server stores the assembly in system tables, and we use catalog views to view the assemblies: sys.assemblies, sys.assembly_files, and so on. External libraries do not use the same underlying tables or catalog views, but to see the external libraries you use:

  • sys.external_libraries - contains a row for each external library that has been uploaded into the database.
  • sys.external_library_files - lists a row for each file in the external library.
  • sys.external_libraries_installed - shows what libraries have been loaded, e.g. used.

An example of this:

SELECT el.name, el.[language], ef.content
FROM sys.external_libraries el
JOIN sys.external_library_files ef
  ON el.external_library_id = ef.external_library_id

Code Snippet 9: View External Libraries

When we run the code in Code Snippet 9 we get:

Figure 1: External Libraries View

We see in Figure 1 some information about the external library. The content column outlined in red is interesting in that it contains the binary representation of the external library.


In this post, we saw how we can make the use of Java in SQL Server somewhat less complex (permissions, code paths, etc.), by using external libraries.

To be able to use external libraries for your Java code, the code need be packaged either in a .jar file, or your class files need to be archived into a .zip file.

We create the external library using the DDL statement CREATE EXTERNAL LIBRARY where we:

  • Define a name for the library.
  • Indicate where the .jar or .zip file is.
  • Set the language to Java.

When we execute against the code we no longer need to have the code copied to the CLASSPATH or define a @CLASSPATH parameter, and no special permissions are required. Well, you need permissions to execute sp_execute_external_script but apart from that nothing else.

When we call sp_execute_external_script SQL Server loads the code from a system table, and we can view what external libraries exist in the database by using the sys.external_libraries and sys.external_library_files catalog views.

As good as all this sounds, there is one minor, (well perhaps not so minor), detail to be aware of: the way we create external libraries in this post - from a file path - requires SQL Server to be able to read from that path. In a production environment that may not be possible, so in a future post we look at how to overcome that.

~ Finally

If you have comments, questions etc., please comment on this post or ping me.

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